By Lua Jawdat
29 January 2019
What it DoesEditA Motherboard is a circuit board that connects everything together in a computer. Found at the bottom or back side of a computer chasis, without a computer, a motherboard would be useless, and without a motherboard, a computer would be unless. The motherboard allows the computer to receive power and communicate with its other parts, such as the CPU, memory (RAM), hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card, and additional ports. Anything that allows the computer to run or enhances its performance is plugged into, connected, or part of the motherboard, and connected through slots or ports.
How it WorksEdit
The motherboard acts as the mastermind behind the computer, transmiting data from one component to the next, and allowing the computer to function. When a computer and its power supply is turned on, power is sent to the motherboard. Data buses connect the data sent from the power supply to the chipset, and the two bridges--north and south--bridge the data to their components, such as the CPU or RAM.
The Form Factor -- The form factor is the shape or physical form of a motherboard, such as the layout and size. While motherboards operate the same way, different models of motherboards, or form facotrs, will have different set-ups, components, ports, and dimmensions. Most PCs use specific form factors that work with their cases. Other popular form factors include: ATX and its variants and ITX and its variants.The Chipset -- The chipset, usually separated into two parts--the North Bridge and the South Bridge--is part of the motherboard's "logic system." The chipset lets the CPU, peripherals, ATA drives, graphics, and memory to connect to each other, by allowing data to flow between the different parts. The North Bridge, placed on the northern side of the chipset, bridges together the CPU, RAM, and PCIe. The South Bridge, placed below the North Bridge, on the southern side of the chipset, connects the BIOS, USB, SATA, and PCI.
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) -- The BIOS controls the very basics of a computer's function. It allows one to turn on their computer, and completes a self-test everytime the computer is turned on.
CPU Socket -- The CPU (Central Processing Unit) controls the computer's speed and efficiency, and interprets all intructions. Often called the brain of the computer, the CPU is vital to the computer and motherboard. The CPU is connected to the motherboard through the CPU socket, a resting place for th CPU. Pins underneath the CPU serve as the connector to the socket. Older CPUs had the same set of pins, called the PGA (Pin Grid Array), connecting the CPU to the motherboard, and allowing any CPU to fit into Socket 7. Some modern day and older CPUs use a variety of pins, fitting into several different kinds of sockets (none of which are Socket 7). The newset CPUs no longer have a PGA. Instead, CPUs rely on Socket T, where the pins are connected to the socket, and not the CPU.Data Bus -- Everything works together on a motherboard because of data buses. It is essentially a circuit that acts as the bridge, connecting the North and South bridges to their components, as listed above. The data bus also connects the two bridges together. Bus speed refers to the speed in which the data is transmited across the bus(es), measured in megahertz (MHz). As shown in the image on the left, each blue line signifies a bus, connecting the data of the components to each bridge.